The standard toilet is a plumbing fixture that is comprised of numerous parts that work in conjunction with water pressure to discard waste. Even though these fixtures can vary in design the basic toilet parts and operation remain similar from one model to the next. The essential parts of a toilet begin with the bowl and the tank. These parts are most often manufactured from ceramic porcelain that is cast in the desired configuration.
Some toilets must comply with handicap requirements and as such the seat is higher that other models. The toilet tank is often attached directly to the bowl however, in some instances it is mounted above the bowl or even replaced completely with a pressurized flush valve. In commercial and public restrooms the flush valve is required for safety reasons since the metal valve removes any hazard associated with a broken or breakable toilet tank.
All toilets reside over a waste hub that secures the bowl in place over a waste line. A wax seal is used to make this connection watertight and the hub includes 2 brass bolts that penetrate the flange at the base of the bowl. Flat washers and nuts are used to secure the toilet to waste line connection and trim caps that match the color of the toilet bowl are used to cover these nuts and washers.
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Where a tank is used to provide water there are numerous parts that comprise the action within the tank. These are a flapper, the float, automatic toilet partsshut off valve and the handle. The flapper serves to close the port between the tank and the bow so water is allowed to refill to the desired level in the tank. The float rises with the water level in the tank and once the level reaches the correct depth, the float arm triggers the shut off valve and the flow of water is stopped.
Toilets that leak or do not shut off completely most often need a flapper replaced. Toilets that don’t shut off most often need the shut off valve replaced or a float arm adjustment.
The handle of a toilet connects to the float arm and when depressed, a chain that is attached at the end of the float arm lifts the flapper and water exits into the bowl. This creates the flush. The toilet handle is seated on a cast port opening near the top of the tank and the handle finish can be chrome, brass or any desired finish.
source : Toilet Parts & Repair